diumenge, 28 d’abril de 2013

実印 (Jitsuin)

Traduint -encara- 1q84 book three, quan Tengo rep la noticia de la  mort del seu pare pregunta a la infermera si ha de portar alguna cosa:

"...Is there anything particular I should bring with me?
"Are you Mr. Kawana's only relative?"
"I'm pretty sure I am"
"Then bring your registered seal. You might need it. And do you have a certificat of registration for the seal?"
pàg. 262

Sols la traducció de Gabriel Álvarez Martínez aporta una nota a peu de pàgina:
"La mayoría de los japoneses tienen un sello indiviadualizado, un tampón que puede ser de distintos materiales; sirve para formalizar documentos legales y tiene el mismo valor que la firma (N.del T.)" 
Capítol 21 pàg. 297

Una mica més d'informació:

In Japan, seals in general are referred to as inkan (印鑑?) or hanko (判子). Inkan is the most comprehensive term; hanko tends to refer to seals used in less important documents.

Government offices and corporations usually have inkan specific to their bureau or company, and which follow the general rules outlined for jitsuin with the following exceptions. In size, they are comparatively enormous, measuring 2 to 4 inches (5.1 to 10 cm) across.

For personal use, there are at least four kinds of seals. In order from most formal/official to least, they are: jitsuin, ginkō-in, mitome-in, and gagō-in.

A jitsuin (実印) is an officially registered seal. A registered seal is needed to conduct business and other important or legally binding events. A jitsuin is used when purchasing a vehicle, marrying, purchasing land, and so on.

The size, shape, material, decoration, and lettering style of jitsuin are closely regulated by law. For example, in Hiroshima, a jitsuin is expected to be roughly 1⁄2 to 1 inch (1.3 to 2.5 cm), usually square or (rarely) rectangular but never round, irregular, or oval, and must contain the individual's full family and given name, without abbreviation. The lettering must be red with a white background (shubun), with roughly equal width lines used throughout the name. The font must be one of several based on ancient historical lettering styles found in metal, woodcarving, and so on; ancient forms of ideographs are commonplace. A red perimeter must entirely surround the name, and there should be no other decoration on the underside (working surface) of the seal, though the top and sides (handle) of the seal may be decorated in any fashion from completely undecorated to historical animal motifs to dates, names, and inscriptions.

Throughout Japan, rules governing jitsuin design are so stringent and each design so unique that the vast majority of people entrust the creation of their jitsuin to a professional, paying upward of US$20 and more often closer to US$100, and will use it for decades. People desirous of opening a new chapter in their lives—say, following a divorce, death of a spouse, a long streak of bad luck, or a change in career—will often have a new jitsuin made.

The jitsuin is always kept in a very secure place such as a bank vault or hidden carefully in one's home. They're usually stored in thumb-sized rectangular boxes made of cardboard covered with heavily embroidered green fabric outside and red silk or red velvet inside, held closed by a white plastic or deerhorn splinter tied to the lid and passed through a fabric loop attached to the lower half of the box. Because of the superficial resemblance to coffins, they're often called "coffins" in Japanese by enthusiasts and hanko boutiques. The paste is usually stored separately.

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